ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis/systemic vasculitis in childhood: clinical features–outcome
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis and systemic vasculitis (AAGNV) is uncommon in childhood.
This is a retrospective study of AAGNV cases diagnosed over a 13-year period in a tertiary pediatric nephrology department.
Thirteen cases of AAGNV were identified: seven Wegener granulomatosis (WG) and six microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Acute renal failure/nephrotic range proteinuria (NRP) was found in 77 % of the patients (4 with WG, all with MPA). Eleven (85 %) patients showed necrotizing glomerulonephritis (NGN), with ≥50 % crescents identified in nine patients (69 %) (4 with WG, 5 with MPA). Treatment with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange resulted in extra-renal remission and antibody reduction in all patients and renal function improvement/stabilization in 77 % of the patients. Three patients, all without oliguria at presentation and few sclerotic lesions, had normal renal function at follow-up. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 2 and 3–4 were observed in four (WG) and three (MPA) patients, respectively. Three patients (23 %) developed end stage renal disease: two were MPA patients with severe presentation (markedly impaired glomerular filtration rate, oliguria, NRP, crescentic NGN, glomerular sclerosis) and one was a WG patient with extensive interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy.
Severe renal involvement was more common in children with MPA than WG. Treatment with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange induced extra-renal remission/serological response and renal function improvement/stabilization. Markedly decreased GFR, oliguria, NRP, and chronic glomerular lesions at presentation were predictors of poor outcome.
KeywordsANCA-associated vasculitisWegener granulomatosisMicroscopic polyangiitisNecrotizing glomerulonephritisChildhood
ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and systemic vasculitis
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
Chronic kidney disease
estimated glomerular filtration rate
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
End stage renal disease
Necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic range proteinuria
Urine protein to creatinine ratio