Combined vaginal–laparoscopic–abdominal approach for the surgical treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis with bowel resection: a comparison of this new technique with various established approaches by laparoscopy and laparotomy
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- Zanetti-Dällenbach, R., Bartley, J., Müller, C. et al. Surg Endosc (2008) 22: 995. doi:10.1007/s00464-007-9560-x
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A new combined vaginal–laparoscopic–abdominal approach for rectovaginal endometriosis allows intraoperative digital bowel palpation to assess bowel infiltration and prevents unnecessary bowel resections. This technique was compared to various established approaches where bowel resection was indicated by clinical symptoms and imaging results only.
Patients operated for rectovaginal endometriosis with endometriotic bowel involvement between March 2002 and April 2006 at the gynecological department Charité, Berlin, Germany were included. Bowel involvement was suspected by clinical symptoms, clinical examination, and/or results of imaging techniques.
The study group (SG) was operated by the combined vaginal–laparoscopic–abdominal approach (n = 30) and the control group (CG) (n = 18) by laparoscopy (n = 4), laparotomy (n = 3), laparoscopy followed by laparotomy for bowel resection (n = 8) or laparoscopy followed by vaginal bowel resection (n = 3). In all cases histopathology was performed.
The study group and the control group were comparable regarding age, body mass index, symptoms, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) classification, colorectal operative procedures, operating times, length of the resected bowel specimen, and concomitant surgical procedures. However, only in the CG were protective stomas required (p = 0.047). There were significantly less complications in the SG (p = 0.027). No patient experienced leakage of anastomosis. Bowel involvement by endometriosis was confirmed by histopathology in the SG in all cases whereas in the CG only in 16/18 (88.9%) cases. Hospitalization time was significantly shorter in the SG. Rehospitalizations were necessary only in the CG to repair one rectovaginal fistula and to reverse three stomas.
With the presented technique of a combined vaginal–laparoscopic–abdominal surgical procedure for rectovaginal endometriosis, we showed that the complication rate, rehospitalization rate, and hospitalization time were significantly lower than in the patients of the CG. Furthermore, the combined vaginal–laparoscopic–abdominal technique allowed better evaluation of the invasiveness of the endometriotic lesion and avoided unnecessary bowel surgery.