, Volume 121, Issue 2, pp 191–199

Condensin dysfunction in human cells induces nonrandom chromosomal breaks in anaphase, with distinct patterns for both unique and repeated genomic regions


  • Alexander Samoshkin
    • NIH NCIGenome Structure and Function Section
  • Stanimir Dulev
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitätAdolf Butenandt Institute
  • Dmitry Loukinov
    • NIH NIAIDLaboratory of Immunopathology
  • Jeffrey A. Rosenfeld
    • Division of High Performance and Research ComputingUniversity of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey
    • NIH NIAIDLaboratory of Immunopathology
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00412-011-0353-6

Cite this article as:
Samoshkin, A., Dulev, S., Loukinov, D. et al. Chromosoma (2012) 121: 191. doi:10.1007/s00412-011-0353-6


Condensin complexes are essential for chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis, while condensin dysfunction, among other pathways leading to chromosomal bridging in mitosis, may play a role in tumor genomic instability, including recently discovered chromotripsis. To characterize potential double-strand breaks specifically occurring in late anaphase, human chromosomes depleted of condensin were analyzed by γ-H2AX ChIP followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). In condensin-depleted cells, the nonrepeated parts of the genome were shown to contain distinct γ-H2AX enrichment zones 75% of which overlapped with known hemizygous deletions in cancers. Furthermore, some tandemly repeated DNA sequences, analyzed separately from the rest of the genome, showed significant γ-H2AX enrichment in condensin-depleted anaphases. The most commonly occurring targets of such enrichment included simple repeats, centromeric satellites, and rDNA. The two latter categories indicate that acrocentric human chromosomes are especially susceptible to breaks upon condensin deficiency. The genomic regions that are specifically destabilized upon condensin dysfunction may constitute a condensin-specific chromosome destabilization pattern.

Supplementary material

412_2011_353_MOESM1_ESM.tif (311 kb)
High-resolution image (TIFF 310 kb)
412_2011_353_MOESM2_ESM.csv (26 kb)
ESM 2γ-H2AX enrichment peaks for SMC2-depleted anaphase cells from ChIP-seq experiments in BED file format. Two illumina sequence datasets were generated for each experimental condition, and the results were combined for analysis. Peaks were generated by CisGenome software, with the following parameters: bin size 150 bp, minimum peak length 600 bp. (CSV 26 kb)
412_2011_353_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (7.5 mb)
(PDF 7.48 MB)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2011