Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in the tympanic membrane of rat

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Abstract

Myringosclerosis is hyalinization and calcification of certain areas of the tympanic membrane, especially the fibrous lamina propria layer and appears as white sclerotic lesions. Ventilation tube insertion is one of the most performed operations in the pediatric otorhinolaryngology practice to treat chronic otitis media with effusion. Myringosclerosis is a very common sequela of ventilation tube insertion. In this experimental study, our aim was to show the histopathological effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in rat tympanic membrane after myringotomy. The rats were randomly categorized into four experimental groups including the comparison group (n = 4), non-treated group (n = 7), the saline (control) group (n = 7), the caffeic acid phenethyl ester group (n = 7). Non-treated group did not receive any treatment for 15 days. Saline (2.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered to the third group once a day for 15 days. Fourth group received caffeic acid phenethyl ester intraperitoneally once a day at a dose of 10 μmol/kg for 15 days. Myringotomy was performed on the right tympanic membrane of all rats except comparison group using a sterile pick with the help of an operating microscope. Histopathological examination of myringosclerosis formation was done by a pathologist under light microscope. In histopathological analysis of groups, the severity of inflammation was milder in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group compared to non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). There was less myringosclerotic plaques in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group than in non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). TM thickness measurements were very close to each other in non-treated and saline groups. The tympanic membrane thickness of caffeic acid phenethyl ester group was much thinner than the other two groups (p < 0.05). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester decreases inflammation severity and the formation of myringosclerotic plaques. These two effects resulted in thinner tympanic membranes of rats which were treated with caffeic acid phenethyl ester. As a result, caffeic acid phenethyl ester has potential preventive effects on myringosclerosis development after myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion.