Research Article

Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 329-338

First online:

Some features of spray breakup in effervescent atomizers

  • Hrishikesh P. GadgilAffiliated withDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Email author 
  • , B. N. RaghunandanAffiliated withDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

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The near orifice spray breakup at low GLR (gas to liquid ratio by mass) values in an effervescent atomizer is studied experimentally using water as a simulant and air as atomizing gas. From the visualizations, the near orifice spray structures are classified into three modes: discrete bubble explosions, continuous bubble explosions and annular conical spray. The breakup of the spray is quantified in terms of the mean bubble bursting distance from the orifice. The parametric study indicates that the mean bubble bursting distance mainly depends on airflow rate, jet diameter and mixture velocity. It is also observed that the jet diameter has a dominant effect on the bubble bursting distance when compared to mixture velocity at a given airflow rate. The mean bubble bursting distance is shown to be governed by a nondimensional two-phase flow number consisting of all the aforementioned parameters. The location of bubble bursting is found to be highly unsteady spatially, which is influenced by flow dynamics inside the injector. It is proposed that this unsteadiness in jet breakup length is a consequence of varying degree of bubble expansion caused due to the intermittent occurrence of single phase and two-phase flow inside the orifice.