Applied Physics A

, Volume 85, Issue 2, pp 141–143

Self-organized minimum-energy structures for dielectric elastomer actuators


DOI: 10.1007/s00339-006-3680-3

Cite this article as:
Kofod, G., Paajanen, M. & Bauer, S. Appl. Phys. A (2006) 85: 141. doi:10.1007/s00339-006-3680-3


When a stretched elastomer is laminated to a flat plastic frame, a complex shape is formed, which is termed a minimum-energy structure. It is shown how self-organized structures can be applied in the development of actuators with complex, out-of-plane actuationmodes. This unusual concept is then demonstrated in the case of dielectric elastomer actuators. Among advantages of this approach are the simplicity in manufacturing, the potential complexity and sophistication of the manufactured structures, and the general benefits of the concept when applied to other electro-mechanically active materials.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Condensed Matter PhysicsUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.VTT Technical Research Centre of FinlandTampereFinland
  3. 3.Department of Soft Matter PhysicsJohannes Kepler UniversityLinzAustria