Original Article

Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 167-174

First online:

Archaeobotanical evidence for trade in hazelnut (Corylus sp.) at Middle Bronze Age Kültepe (c. 1950–1830 b.c.), Kayseri Province, Turkey

  • Andrew FairbairnAffiliated withThe University of Queensland, School of Social Science Email author 
  • , Fikri KulakoğluAffiliated withArkeoloji Bölümü, Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi, Ankara Üniversitesi
  • , Levent AticiAffiliated withDepartment of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

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Archaeobotanical samples from the Middle Bronze Age (MBA; c. 2000–1700 b.c.) city of Kanesh, excavated at the site of Kültepe in Kayseri Province, Turkey, preserve the charred shells of hazelnut (Corylus sp.). Hazelnut species do not naturally grow in the Kayseri area, being a native element of the broadleaf woodlands of Turkey’s Black Sea region, today home to a multi-million dollar international hazelnut export industry. The finds come from both the upper and lower city, being restricted to the Middle Bronze Age Karum level II, an occupation phase which saw the greatest development of the Assyrian trade network of which Kanesh was the administrative centre. This archaeobotanical discovery at Kültepe provides the earliest direct evidence for trade in hazelnuts in the region, probably imported on a small scale as luxury items facilitated by the Assyrian trade network. It also provides independent support for historical claims that hazelnut was traded at Kanesh based on the analysis of cuneiform tablets.


Hazelnut Anatolia Trade Bronze Age Assyrian trade colony Kanesh