Research Article

Current Genetics

, Volume 59, Issue 4, pp 251-264

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Recent insights into Candida albicans biofilm resistance mechanisms

  • Lotte MathéAffiliated withDepartment of Molecular Microbiology, VIBLaboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, KU Leuven
  • , Patrick Van DijckAffiliated withDepartment of Molecular Microbiology, VIBLaboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, KU Leuven Email author 

Abstract

Like other microorganisms, free-living Candida albicans is mainly present in a three-dimensional multicellular structure, which is called a biofilm, rather than in a planktonic form. Candida albicans biofilms can be isolated from both abiotic and biotic surfaces at various locations within the host. As the number of abiotic implants, mainly bloodstream and urinary catheters, has been increasing, the number of biofilm-associated bloodstream or urogenital tract infections is also strongly increasing resulting in a raise in mortality. Cells within a biofilm structure show a reduced susceptibility to specific commonly used antifungals and, in addition, it has recently been shown that such cells are less sensitive to killing by components of our immune system. In this review, we summarize the most important insights in the mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antifungal drug resistance and immune evasion strategies, focusing on the most recent advances in this area of research.

Keywords

Candida albicans Biofilm Drug resistance Host immune response