Regular Article

OR Spectrum

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 633-661

First online:

Development and simulation analysis of real-time, dual-load yard truck control systems for seaport container transshipment terminals

  • Matthew E. H. PeteringAffiliated withDepartment of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Email author 

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We show how a seaport container terminal’s long-run average quay crane rate depends on the system that automatically assigns yard trucks to container transportation jobs in the terminal in real time. Several real-time, dual-load yard truck control systems are proposed and evaluated by a fully-integrated, discrete event simulation model of a vessel-to-vessel transshipment terminal. The model is designed to reproduce the microscopic, stochastic, real-time environment at a multiple-berth facility. Overall, the literature still lacks a comprehensive analysis that (1) considers different methods for controlling dual-load vehicles in real time within a fully-integrated, stochastic container terminal environment and (2) compares them in terms of an absolute global performance measure such as average quay crane rate. This paper provides such an analysis.


Seaport container terminal Real-time control Dynamic vehicle routing Gross crane rate Simulation