Original Paper

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 205-215

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

The early bee catches the flower - circadian rhythmicity influences learning performance in honey bees, Apis mellifera

  • Marina LehmannAffiliated withNeurobiology, University of Konstanz
  • , David GustavAffiliated withNeurobiology, University of Konstanz
  • , C. Giovanni GaliziaAffiliated withNeurobiology, University of Konstanz Email author 


Circadian rhythmicity plays an important role for many aspects of honey bees’ lives. However, the question whether it also affects learning and memory remained unanswered. To address this question, we studied the effect of circadian timing on olfactory learning and memory in honey bees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex paradigm. Bees were differentially conditioned to odours and tested for their odour learning at four different “Zeitgeber” time points. We show that learning behaviour is influenced by circadian timing. Honey bees perform best in the morning compared to the other times of day. Additionally, we found influences of the light condition bees were trained at on the olfactory learning. This circadian-mediated learning is independent from feeding times bees were entrained to, indicating an inherited and not acquired mechanism. We hypothesise that a co-evolutionary mechanism between the honey bee as a pollinator and plants might be the driving force for the evolution of the time-dependent learning abilities of bees.


Circadian Honey bee Learning Olfaction