Original Paper

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 64, Issue 9, pp 1495-1503

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Refuge sharing network predicts ectoparasite load in a lizard

  • Stephan T. LeuAffiliated withSchool of Biological Sciences, Flinders University Email author 
  • , Peter M. KappelerAffiliated withDepartment of Sociobiology/Anthropology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute of Zoology & Anthropology, University of Göttingen
  • , C. Michael BullAffiliated withSchool of Biological Sciences, Flinders University


Living in social groups facilitates cross-infection by parasites. However, empirical studies on indirect transmission within wildlife populations are scarce. We investigated whether asynchronous overnight refuge sharing among neighboring sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, facilitates indirect transmission of its ectoparasitic tick, Amblyomma limbatum. We fitted 18 neighboring lizards with GPS recorders, observed their overnight refuge use each night over 3 months, and counted their ticks every fortnight. We constructed a transmission network to estimate the cross-infection risk based on asynchronous refuge sharing frequencies among all lizards and the life history traits of the tick. Although self-infection was possible, the network provided a powerful predictor of measured tick loads. Highly connected lizards that frequently used their neighbors’ refuges were characterized by higher tick loads. Thus, indirect contact had a major influence on transmission pathways and parasite loads. Furthermore, lizards that used many different refuges had lower cross- and self-infection risks and lower tick loads than individuals that used relatively fewer refuges. Increasing the number of refuges used by a lizard may be an important defense mechanism against ectoparasite transmission in this species. Our study provides important empirical data to further understand how indirectly transmitted parasites move through host populations and influence individual parasite loads.


Ectoparasites Indirect transmission Infection risk Lizards Network Ticks