Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 97, Issue 1, pp 135–142

Controlling autonomous underwater floating platforms using bacterial fermentation


    • Chemistry DivisionUS Naval Research Laboratory
  • Lisa A. Fitzgerald
    • Chemistry DivisionUS Naval Research Laboratory
  • Erinn C. Howard
    • Chemistry DivisionUS Naval Research Laboratory
    • The Scientific Consulting Group, Inc.
  • Emily R. Petersen
    • Nova Research, Inc.
  • Preston A. Fulmer
    • Chemistry DivisionUS Naval Research Laboratory
  • Peter K. Wu
    • Department of PhysicsSouthern Oregon University
  • Bradley R. Ringeisen
    • Chemistry DivisionUS Naval Research Laboratory
Biotechnological Products and Process Engineering

DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4296-5

Cite this article as:
Biffinger, J.C., Fitzgerald, L.A., Howard, E.C. et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2013) 97: 135. doi:10.1007/s00253-012-4296-5


Biogenic gas has a wide range of energy applications from being used as a source for crude bio-oil components to direct ignition for heating. The current study describes the use of biogenic gases from Clostridium acetobutylicum for a new application—renewable ballast regeneration for autonomous underwater devices. Uninterrupted (continuous) and blocked flow (pressurization) experiments were performed to determine the overall biogas composition and total volume generated from a semirigid gelatinous matrix. For stopped flow experiments, C. acetobutylicum generated a maximum pressure of 55 psi over 48 h composed of 60 % hydrogen gas when inoculated in a 5 % agar (w/v) support with 5 % glucose (w/v) in the matrix. Typical pressures over 24 h at 318 K ranged from 10 to 33 psi. These blocked flow experiments show for the first time the use of microbial gas production as a way to repressurize gas cylinders. Continuous flow experiments successfully demonstrated how to deliver biogas to an open ballast control configuration for deployable underwater platforms. This study is a starting point for engineering and microbiology investigations of biogas which will advance the integration of biology within autonomous systems.


Clostridium acetobutylicum Hydrogen Pressure Ballast Fermentation

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012