Microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum and their cytotoxic effects against mouse mayo blast cancer C2C12 cells
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- Mishra, A., Tripathy, S.K., Wahab, R. et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2011) 92: 617. doi:10.1007/s00253-011-3556-0
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Microorganisms, their cell filtrates, and live biomass have been utilized for synthesizing various gold nanoparticles. The shape, size, stability as well as the purity of the bio synthesized nanoparticles become very essential for application purpose. In the present study, gold nanoparticles have been synthesized from the supernatant, live cell filtrate, and biomass of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum. The fungus has been grown in potato dextrose broth which is also found to synthesize gold nanoparticles. The size of the particles has been investigated by Bio-TEM before purification, following purification and after storing the particles for 3 months under refrigerated condition. Different characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV–visible spectroscopy have been used for analysis of the particles. The effect of reaction parameters such as pH and concentration of gold salt have also been monitored to optimize the morphology and dispersity of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. A pH range of 5 to 8 has favored the synthesis process whereas increasing concentration of gold salt (beyond 2 mM) has resulted in the formation of bigger sized and aggregated nanoparticles. Additionally, the cytotoxic nature of prepared nanoparticles has been analyzed using mouse mayo blast cancer C2C12 cells at different time intervals (24, 48, and 72 h) of incubation period. The cells are cultivated in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum with antibiotics (streptopenicillin) at 37°C in a 5% humidified environment of CO2. The medium has been replenished every other day, and the cells are subcultured after reaching the confluence. The viability of the cells is analyzed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method.