Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 189–196

Aspergillus niger citric acid accumulation: do we understand this well working black box?


  • Levente Karaffa
    • Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Debrecen
    • Division of Applied Biochemistry and Gene Technology, Institute of Chemical EngineeringTU Wien

DOI: 10.1007/s00253-002-1201-7

Cite this article as:
Karaffa, L. & Kubicek, C.P. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2003) 61: 189. doi:10.1007/s00253-002-1201-7


This Mini-Review summarizes the current knowledge on the biochemical and physiological events leading to massive citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger under industrially comparable conditions, thereby particularly emphasizing the roles of glycolytic flux and its control, excretion of citric acid from the mitochondria and the cytosol, and the critical fermentation variables. The potential of novel techniques for metabolic analysis and genomic approaches in understanding this fermentation is also discussed.

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© Springer-Verlag 2003