Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Amphibian Skin Bacterial Communities Across Elevations in the Neotropics
Both the structure and function of host-associated microbial communities are potentially impacted by environmental conditions, just as the outcomes of many free-living species interactions are context-dependent. Many amphibian populations have declined around the globe due to the fungal skin pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but enivronmental conditions may influence disease dynamics. For instance, in Panamá, the most severe Bd outbreaks have occurred at high elevation sites. Some amphibian species harbor bacterial skin communities that can inhibit the growth of Bd, and therefore, there is interest in understanding whether environmental context could also alter these host-associated microbial communities in a way that might ultimately impact Bd dynamics. In a field survey in Panamá, we assessed skin bacterial communities (16S rRNA amplicon sequencing) and metabolite profiles (HPLC-UV/Vis) of Silverstoneia flotator from three high- and three low-elevation populations representing a range of environmental conditions. Across elevations, frogs had similar skin bacterial communities, although one lowland site appeared to differ. Interestingly, we found that bacterial richness decreased from west to east, coinciding with the direction of Bd spread through Panamá. Moreover, metabolite profiles suggested potential functional variation among frog populations and between elevations. While the frogs have similar bacterial community structure, the local environment might shape the metabolite profiles. Ultimately, host-associated community structure and function could be dependent on environmental conditions, which could ultimately influence host disease susceptibility across sites.