Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 598–610

Toxic Exposure of Songbirds to Lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

Authors

    • United States Geological SurveyPatuxent Wildlife Research Center
  • J. Christian Franson
    • United States Geological SurveyNational Wildlife Health Center
  • John B. French
    • United States Geological SurveyPatuxent Wildlife Research Center
  • Thomas May
    • Environmental Chemistry BranchColumbia Environmental Research Center
  • Barnett A. Rattner
    • United States Geological SurveyPatuxent Wildlife Research Center
  • Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler
    • United States Geological SurveyNational Wildlife Health Center
  • Sarah E. Warner
    • United States Fish and Wildlife Service
  • John Weber
    • United States Fish and Wildlife Service
  • David Mosby
    • United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00244-013-9923-3

Cite this article as:
Beyer, W.N., Franson, J.C., French, J.B. et al. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol (2013) 65: 598. doi:10.1007/s00244-013-9923-3

Abstract

Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p < 0.05) than those in songbirds from reference sites by factors of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11–3.0 (reference) and 1.3–30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43–8.5 (reference) and 7.6–72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32 %) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9 %) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12 %) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58–82 % in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

Supplementary material

244_2013_9923_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 16 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2013