, Volume 228, Issue 4, pp 571-578

Occurrence of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in infant and baby foods

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Abstract

A series of fourteen starter formula, follow-up formula, and growing-up milk produced by three manufacturers was analyzed by for the chloropropanols 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP), 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and their fatty acid esters. While none of the products contained free chloropropanols at levels exceeding the method detections limits, all of them contained relatively high amounts of 3-MCPD esters. The latter concentrations ranged from 62 to 588 μg of 3-MCPD esters (bound 3-MCPD)/kg on the product basis and <300 (limit of quantification)—2,060 μg/kg expressed on the fat basis. These concentrations were proportional to the fat content in products as refined vegetable oils used by the manufacturers contain elevated levels of 3-MCPD esters depending on their origin and other factors. Regular intake of these products can lead to exceeding the tolerable daily intake that has been set for free 3-MCPD. The major types of 3-MCPD esters were the symmetric diesters with palmitic and oleic acids and asymmetric diesters with palmitic/oleic acid among which 1,2-palmitoyl, oleoyl-3-MCPD prevailed.