, Volume 405, Issue 11, pp 3659-3672
Date: 10 Nov 2012

Electrode interfaces switchable by physical and chemical signals for biosensing, biofuel, and biocomputing applications

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This review outlines advances in designing modified electrodes with switchable properties controlled by various physical and chemical signals. Irradiation of the modified electrode surfaces with various light signals, changing the temperature of the electrolyte solution, application of a magnetic field or electrical potentials, changing the pH of the solutions, and addition of chemical/biochemical substrates were used to change reversibly the electrode activity. The increasing complexity in the signal processing was achieved by integration of the switchable electrode interfaces with biomolecular information processing systems mimicking Boolean logic operations, thus allowing activation and inhibition of electrochemical processes on demand by complex combinations of biochemical signals. The systems reviewed range from simple chemical compositions to complex mixtures modeling biological fluids, where the signal substrates were added at normal physiological and elevated pathological concentrations. The switchable electrode interfaces are considered for future biomedical applications where the electrode properties will be modulated by the biomarker concentrations reflecting physiological conditions.


Modified electrodes were reversibly switched between active and inactive states by various physical and chemical signals.