, Volume 396, Issue 1, pp 339-364

Recent developments and applications of microextraction techniques in drug analysis

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Abstract

Sample preparation is important for isolating desired components from complex matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate analysis. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance, online coupling with analytical instruments, and low-cost operation through extremely low or no solvent consumption. Microextraction techniques, such as liquid-phase microextraction and solid-phase microextraction, have these advantages over the traditional approaches of liquid–liquid extraction and conventional solid-phase extraction. This review focuses primarily on these microextraction techniques developed over the last decade, and presents a summary of the characteristics of various approaches in drug analysis.