Original Article

Osteoporosis International

, Volume 23, Issue 10, pp 2447-2459

Growth from birth to adulthood and peak bone mass and density data from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

  • N. TandonAffiliated withDepartment of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Email author 
  • , C. H. D. FallAffiliated withMRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton
  • , C. OsmondAffiliated withMRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton
  • , H. P. S. SachdevAffiliated withSitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research
  • , D. PrabhakaranAffiliated withCentre for Chronic Disease Control
  • , L. RamakrishnanAffiliated withDepartment of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical SciencesDepartment of Cardiac Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences
  • , S. K. Dey BiswasAffiliated withIndian Council of Medical Research
  • , S. RamjiAffiliated withMaulana Azad Medical College
  • , A. KhalilAffiliated withThe Heart Centre
    • , T. GeraAffiliated withFortis Hospital
    • , K. S. ReddyAffiliated withPublic Health Foundation of India
    • , D. J. P. BarkerAffiliated withMRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton
    • , C. CooperAffiliated withMRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton
    • , S. K. BhargavaAffiliated withDepartment of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical SciencesSunder Lal Jain Hospital

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Abstract

Summary

Growth in early life may predict adult bone health. Our data showed that greater height and body mass index (BMI) gain in utero and infancy are associated with higher peak bone mass, and greater BMI gain in childhood/adolescence with higher peak bone density. These associations are mediated by attained adult height and BMI.

Introduction

To study the relationship of height and BMI during childhood with adult bone mineral content (BMC), areal density (aBMD) and apparent density (BMAD, estimated volumetric density).

Methods

Participants comprised 565 men and women aged 33–39 years from the New Delhi Birth Cohort, India, whose weight and height were recorded at birth and annually during infancy (0–2 years), childhood (2–11 years) and adolescence (11 years–adult). Lumbar spine, femoral neck and forearm BMC and aBMD were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry; lumbar spine and femoral neck BMAD were calculated.

Results

Birth length, and height and height gain during infancy, childhood and adolescence were positively correlated with adult BMC (p≤0.01 all sites except birth length with femoral neck). Correlations increased with height from birth to 6 years, then remained constant for later height measurements. There were no associations with BMAD. BMI at birth, and during childhood and adolescence was also positively correlated with BMC (p < 0.01 all sites). BMI at 11 years, and BMI gain in childhood and adolescence, were correlated with aBMD and BMAD (p < 0.001 for all); these correlations strengthened with increasing age of BMI measurement. The associations with height and BMI in early life became non-significant after adjustment for adult height and BMI.

Conclusions

Greater skeletal growth and BMI gain in utero and during infancy are associated with higher peak BMC, and greater BMI gain in childhood and adolescence is associated with higher peak aBMD and BMAD. These associations are mediated by the attainment of adult height and BMI, respectively.

Keywords

Birth cohort Body mass index Bone mineral content Bone mineral density Childhood growth Height