Original Article

Osteoporosis International

, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 1529-1536

Effects of a 1-year randomized controlled trial of resistance training on lower limb bone and muscle structure and function in older men

  • J. WhitefordAffiliated withCurtin Health Innovation Research Institute, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology Email author 
  • , T. R. AcklandAffiliated withSchool of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia
  • , S. S. DhaliwalAffiliated withCurtin Health Innovation Research Institute, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology
  • , A. P. JamesAffiliated withCurtin Health Innovation Research Institute, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology
  • , J. J. WoodhouseAffiliated withSchool of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia
  • , R. PriceAffiliated withSchool of Surgery, The University of Western Australia
  • , R. L. PrinceAffiliated withSchool of Medicine and Pharmacology, The University of Western AustraliaDepartment of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
  • , D. A. KerrAffiliated withCurtin Health Innovation Research Institute, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology

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Abstract

Summary

A 1-year randomized controlled trial of resistance training compared with a control group was undertaken in 143 men aged 55–80 years. Although hip bone mineral density, lean body mass, and function increased in both groups, lean body mass and function but not bone density increased more in the resistance group.

Introduction

Previous studies have demonstrated a positive effect of resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, but the effect in men is unclear. The aim was to examine the effect of a 1-year resistance training program on bone and lean body mass in 143 men aged 55–80 years, randomized to either resistance training or active control.

Methods

Resistance exercises were selected to provide loading at the hips. Measurements were taken at 0, 6, and 12 months for BMD (whole body, hip, and spine), lean body mass, strength, and functional fitness.

Results

The intervention showed a significant increase in total hip BMD for both groups at 12 months (active control, 1,014–1,050 mg/cm2; resistance, 1,045–1,054 mg/cm2, p < 0.05) with no increased effect of resistance training compared to active control. However, compared to the active control group, the resistance group increased their lean body mass (active control, 0.1 ± 2.1%; resistance, 1.5 ± 2.7%, p < 0.05), fitness (active control, 4.6 ± 11.1%; resistance, 13.0 ± 13.4%, p < 0.05), and lower limb muscle strength (active control, 14.3 ± 16.8%; resistance, 39.4 ± 30.87%, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

In contrast to previous findings in older women, in older men, a resistance training program does not increase hip bone mass more than walking 30 min three times a week.

Keywords

Bone density Exercise Randomized Resistance training Strength