Date: 31 Jan 2007
Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Women participated in 5 months of unilateral concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) isokinetic resistance training of the legs and arms. Limb muscular strength increased as did total body, leg, and arm fat-free soft tissue mass, total body BMC, hip BMD, and forearm BMC and BMD. Isokinetic training benefits bone mineral acquisition.
Introduction and hypothesis
Isokinetic resistance training (IRT) is osteogenic; however, it is not known if concentric or eccentric modalities of IRT produce differential effects on bone. We tested our hypothesis that high-load eccentric versus concentric mode of IRT would produce greater increases in muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in trained legs and arms.
Participants were randomized to 5 months of concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) training. The non-dominant leg and arm were used during training; dominant limbs served as controls. Muscular strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer; body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Muscular strength of the concentrically and eccentrically trained leg (18.6%; 28.9%) and arm (12.5%; 24.6%) significantly increased with training. Gains in total body (TB) BMC (p < 0.05) and, in the trained limbs, total proximal femur BMD (p < 0.05) and total forearm BMD (p < 0.05) and BMC (p < 0.05) occurred in both groups. FFSTM increased for the TB and trained leg and arm (all p < 0.001) in both modes.
Regardless of the mode, high-intensity, slow-velocity IRT increases muscular strength and FFSTM of trained limbs and imparts benefits to TB BMC and site-specific BMD and BMC in young women.
Balnave CD, Thompson MW (1993) Effect of training on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. J Appl Physiol 75:1545–1551PubMed
Higbie EJ, Cureton KJ, Warren GL III et al (1996) Effects of concentric and eccentric training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and neural activation. J Appl Physiol 81:2173–2181PubMed
Bast SC, Vangsness CT Jr, Takemura J et al (1998) The effects of concentric versus eccentric isokinetic strength training of the rotator cuff in the plane of the scapula at various speeds. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 57:139–144PubMed
Dudley GA, Tesch PA, Miller BJ et al (1991) Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training. Aviat Space Environ Med 62:543–550PubMed
Enoka RM (1996) Eccentric contractions require unique activation strategies by the nervous system. J Appl Physiol 81:2339–2346PubMed
Haapasalo H, Sievanen H, Kannus P et al (1996) Dimensions and estimated mechanical characteristics of the humerus after long-term tennis loading. J Bone Miner Res 11:864–872PubMed
Kerr D, Morton A, Dick I et al (1996) Exercise effects on bone mass in postmenopausal women are site-specific and load-dependent. J Bone Miner Res 11:218–225PubMed
Miller LE, Pierson LM, Nickols-Richardson SM et al (2006) Knee extensor and flexor torque development with concentric and eccentric isokinetic training. Res Q Exerc Sport 77:58–63PubMed
Heinonen A, Sievanen H, Kannus P et al (1996) Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral mass and estimated mechanical characteristics of the upper limb bones in young women. J Bone Miner Res 11:490–501PubMed
Lohman T, Going S, Pamenter R et al (1995) Effects of resistance training on regional and total bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 10:1015–1024PubMed
Peterson SE, Peterson MD, Raymond G et al (1991) Muscular strength and bone density with weight training in middle-aged women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:499–504PubMed
Taaffe DR, Marcus R (2004) The muscle strength and bone density relationship in young women: Dependence on exercise status. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 44:98–103PubMed
- Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women
Volume 18, Issue 6 , pp 789-796
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Bone densitometry
- Bone mineral
- Mechanical loading
- Muscular strength
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 3. Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, S-129D South Henderson Bldg., University Park, PA, 16802, USA
- 1. Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise (0430), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 225 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA, 24061-0430, USA
- 2. Health Research Group, Rockbridge Baths, VA, USA