Periprosthetic bone remodelling of two types of uncemented femoral implant with proximal hydroxyapatite coating: a 3-year follow-up study addressing the influence of prosthesis design and preoperative bone density on periprosthetic bone loss
Periprosthetic bone loss is a major cause of concern in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). Further studies are required to identify the factors determining the pattern of bone remodelling following THA and obtain improvements in the design and durability of prostheses. In this study, we monitored periprosthetic bone loss around two different types of hydroxyapatite coated femoral implant over a 3-year period to evaluate their design and investigate the relationship with the preoperative bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine, hip and forearm. Sixty patients (35 F, 25 M, mean age 63 years, range 46–75 years) undergoing THA were randomised to either the Anatomic Benoist Girard (ABG) or Mallory-Head (MH) femoral stem. Preoperative dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were acquired of the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral lumbar spine, the contralateral hip and the non-dominant forearm. Postoperative DXA scans were performed to measure periprosthetic BMD at 10 days (treated as baseline), 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after THA using a standard Gruen zone analysis. Results were expressed as the percentage change from baseline and the data examined for the differences in bone loss between the different Gruen zones, between the ABG and MH stems, and the relationship with preoperative BMD. A total of 50 patients (24 ABG, 26 MH) completed the study. Three months after THA there was a statistically significant BMD decrease in every Gruen zone that varied between 5.6% and 13.8% for the ABG prosthesis and between 3.8% and 8.7% for the MH prosthesis. Subsequently, in most zones BMD reached a plateau or showed a small recovery. However, BMD continued to fall in Gruen zones 1 and 7 in ABG patients and Gruen zone 1 in MH patients. Bone loss was less in every Gruen zone in MH patients compared with ABG with the largest difference (10%, P=0.018) in Gruen zone 7. Highly significant relationships were found between periprosthetic bone loss and preoperative BMD measured at the PA spine (P<0.001), total hip (P=0.004) and total distal radius (P<0.001). This study showed differences between two different designs of hydroxyapatite-coated implant that confirmed that prosthesis design influences periprosthetic bone loss. The study also showed that patients’ bone density measured at the spine, hip or forearm at the time of operation was a major factor influencing bone loss around the femoral stem.
Bone mineral density Bone quality Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry Periprosthetic bone loss Total hip arthroplasty