Original Article

International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 19, Issue 11, pp 1545-1550

First online:

Nocturia, nocturnal incontinence prevalence, and response to anticholinergic and behavioral therapy

  • M. P. FitzGeraldAffiliated withLoyola University Medical CenterDivision of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center Email author 
  • , G. LemackAffiliated withUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
  • , T. WheelerAffiliated withUniversity of Alabama Medical Center
  • , H. J. LitmanAffiliated withNew England Research Institutes
  • , for the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


To determine whether participants in the behavior enhances drug reduction of incontinence (BE-DRI) trial experienced reduction in the frequency of nocturia and/or nocturnal leakage during treatment with antimuscarinic phamacotherapy with or without additional behavioral therapy. We analyzed urinary diary data relating to nocturia and nocturnal incontinence before and after 8 weeks of study treatment in the BE-DRI trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to receive drug therapy with tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules 4 mg alone or in combination with behavioral training. Chi-square tests assessed whether nocturia and nocturnal incontinence prevalence varied by treatment arm and paired t tests assessed the change in mean frequency of nocturia and nocturnal leakage. Among 305 women, 210 (69%) had an average of at least one nocturia episode at baseline. There were small but statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in mean nocturia frequency and nocturnal incontinence frequency with both treatments after 8 weeks, but no significant difference between study treatment groups. Among these urge incontinent women, tolterodine with or without supervised behavioral therapy had little impact on either nocturic frequency or nocturnal incontinence.


Lower urinary tract Nocturia Antimuscarinic therapy Behavioral therapy Urge incontinence