Original Article

Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 80, Issue 5, pp 248-258

First online:

Determination of Postglacial Land Uplift in Fennoscandia from Leveling, Tide-gauges and Continuous GPS Stations using Least Squares Collocation

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Precise leveling, tide-gauge recordings and time series from continuous GPS stations are all sources of information about the ongoing postglacial land uplift in Fennoscandia. This article describes how to gather these three sources of data together in a least-squares collocation adjustment in order to calculate uplift rates, as well as new heights for the benchmarks in the leveling network. The estimated reliability of the resulting uplift model is in general better than 0.4 mm/year, decreasing in areas of fewer data.


Postglacial land uplift Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) Least-squares collocation (LSC) Precise leveling tide-gauges Continuous GPS (cGPS)