The hamstring muscle complex
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The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe.
Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45–98).
Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens.
No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy.
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- The hamstring muscle complex
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Volume 23, Issue 7 , pp 2115-2122
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- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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- Hamstring muscles
- Biceps femoris
- Injury mechanism
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22700, 1100 DE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- 6. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- 2. Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22700, 1100 DE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- 3. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Oslo Medical School and Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
- 4. Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, Human Anatomy Unit, University of Barcelona, c/Feixa Llarga s/n (Campus Bellvitge), 08907 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
- 5. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3471 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1011, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA