Journal of Population Economics

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 713–738

Racial harassment, job satisfaction, and intentions to remain in the military


    • Department of EconomicsClaremont McKenna College
    • Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
  • Deborah Cobb-Clark
    • Social Policy Evaluation, Analysis and Research Centre, Economics Program, Research School of Social SciencesAustralian National University
    • Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0176-1

Cite this article as:
Antecol, H. & Cobb-Clark, D. J Popul Econ (2009) 22: 713. doi:10.1007/s00148-007-0176-1


Our results indicate that two thirds of active-duty military personnel report experiencing offensive racial behaviors in the previous 12 months, whereas approximately one in ten reports threatening racial incidents or career-related discrimination. Racial harassment significantly increases job dissatisfaction irrespective of the form of harassment considered. Furthermore, threatening racial incidents and career-related discrimination heighten intentions to leave the military. Finally, our results point to the importance of accounting for unobserved individual- and job-specific heterogeneity when assessing the consequences of racial harassment. In single-equation models, the estimated effects of racial harassment on both job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave the military are understated.


Job satisfactionRacial harassmentQuits

JEL Classification


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© Springer-Verlag 2007