Journal of Population Economics

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 713–738

Racial harassment, job satisfaction, and intentions to remain in the military

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0176-1

Cite this article as:
Antecol, H. & Cobb-Clark, D. J Popul Econ (2009) 22: 713. doi:10.1007/s00148-007-0176-1


Our results indicate that two thirds of active-duty military personnel report experiencing offensive racial behaviors in the previous 12 months, whereas approximately one in ten reports threatening racial incidents or career-related discrimination. Racial harassment significantly increases job dissatisfaction irrespective of the form of harassment considered. Furthermore, threatening racial incidents and career-related discrimination heighten intentions to leave the military. Finally, our results point to the importance of accounting for unobserved individual- and job-specific heterogeneity when assessing the consequences of racial harassment. In single-equation models, the estimated effects of racial harassment on both job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave the military are understated.


Job satisfactionRacial harassmentQuits

JEL Classification


Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsClaremont McKenna CollegeClaremontUSA
  2. 2.Social Policy Evaluation, Analysis and Research Centre, Economics Program, Research School of Social SciencesAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  3. 3.Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)BonnGermany