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, 22:211

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Reflection in interaction

  • Renate FruchterAffiliated withDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University Email author 
  • , Subashri SwaminathanAffiliated withDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University
  • , Manjunath BoraiahAffiliated withInstitute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, Stanford University
  • , Chhavi UpadhyayAffiliated withDepartment of Management Science and Engineering, Stanford University


A decision delay can translate into significant financial and business losses. One way to accelerate the decision process is through improved communication among the stakeholders engaged in the project. Capturing, transferring, managing, and reusing data, information, and knowledge in the context it is generated can lead to higher productivity, effective communication, reduced number of requests for clarification, and a shorter time-to-market cycle. We formalized the concept of reflection in interaction during communicative events among multiple project stakeholders. This concept extends Donald Schon’s theory of reflection in action of a single practitioner. We model the observed reflection in interaction with a prototype system called TalkingPaperTM. It is a ubiquitous client-server collaborative environment that facilitates knowledge capture, sharing, and reuse during synchronous and asynchronous communicative events. TalkingPaperTM bridges the paper and digital worlds. It transforms the analog verbal discours, annotated paper corporate documents, and the paper and pencil sketches into indexed and synchronized digital content that is published on and streamed on-demand from a TalkingPaperTM web server. The TalkingPaperTM sessions can be accessed by all stakeholders for rapid knowledge sharing and decision-making.