Original

Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 1315-1325

Value of β-d-glucan and Candida albicans germ tube antibody for discriminating between Candida colonization and invasive candidiasis in patients with severe abdominal conditions

  • Cristóbal LeónAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Universidad de Sevilla Email author 
  • , Sergio Ruiz-SantanaAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Dr. Negrín, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • , Pedro SaavedraAffiliated withMathematics Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • , Carmen CastroAffiliated withService of Clinical Microbiology, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Universidad de Sevilla
  • , Alejandro ÚbedaAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Universidad de Sevilla
  • , Ana LozaAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Universidad de Sevilla
  • , Estrella Martín-MazuelosAffiliated withService of Clinical Microbiology, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Universidad de Sevilla
  • , Armando BlancoAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias
  • , Vicente JerezAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Infanta Cristina
    • , Josep BallúsAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat
    • , Luis Álvarez-RochaAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña
    • , Aránzazu Utande-VázquezAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet
    • , Osvaldo FariñasAffiliated withIntensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Dr. Negrín, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the value of (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BDG), Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) levels for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) and for differentiating Candida spp. colonization from infection in ICU patients with severe abdominal conditions (SAC).

Methods

Prospective study of 176 non-neutropenic patients, with SAC at ICU admission, and expected to stay at least 7 days. Surveillance cultures and BDG, CAGTA, CRP, and PCT levels were performed on the third day of ICU stay and twice a week for four consecutive weeks. Patients were grouped into invasive candidiasis (IC), Candida colonization, and neither colonized/nor infected. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to predict IC in colonized patients. The discriminatory ability of the obtained prediction rule was assessed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC).

Results

The probabilities of IC were 59.3 % for the terminal node of BDG greater than 259 pg/mL and 30.8 % for BDG less than 259 pg/mL and CAGTA positivity, whereas there was a 93.9 % probability in predicting the absence of IC for BDG less than 259 pg/mL and negative CAGTA. Using a cutoff of 30 % for IC probability, the prediction rule showed 90.3 % sensitivity, 54.8 % specificity, 42.4 % positive predictive value, and 93.9 % negative predictive value with an AUC of 0.78 (95 % confidence interval 0.76–0.81). Significant differences in CRP (p = 0.411) and PCT (p = 0.179) among the studied groups were not found.

Conclusions

BDG with a positive test for CAGTA accurately differentiated Candida colonization from IC in patients with SAC, whereas CRP and PCT did not.

Keywords

(1→3)-β-d-Glucan Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA) C-reactive protein Procalcitonin Critically ill patients Abdominal conditions