, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 399-409

Selecting, developing, and evaluating research instruments

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The goal of this paper is to provide researchers who are not experts in psychometric theory with a concise guide to instrument selection, development and evaluation. Issues of context – factors related to the setting or population in which an instrument will be used – and psychometrics – the functioning of an instrument within a given context – are reviewed and discussed. Finally, four categories or types of instruments, and the psychometric analyses that are necessary for establishing the reliability and validity of each type, are described.