Original Paper

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 125-134

Adolescent risk factors for excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. A 16-year prospective follow-up study

  • Taina HuurreAffiliated withDepartment of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare Email author 
  • , Tomi LintonenAffiliated withTampere School of Public Health, University of TamperePolice College of Finland
  • , Jaakko KaprioAffiliated withDepartment of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and WelfareDepartment of Public Health, University of Helsinki
  • , Mirjami PelkonenAffiliated withDepartment of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and WelfareTampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere
  • , Mauri MarttunenAffiliated withDepartment of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and WelfareDepartment of Adolescent Psychiatry and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital
  • , Hillevi AroAffiliated withDepartment of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare

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Abstract

Aims

To examine which socioeconomic, family, personal and lifestyle risk factors in adolescence were the strongest independent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood.

Methods

In a prospective longitudinal study, all 16-year-olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school, and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age [n = 1,471, (females n = 805, males n = 666); response rate 70.3%). The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use in adulthood. AUDIT scores of 8 or more for females and 10 or more for males were classified as excessive alcohol use. Adolescent risk factors examined were parental social class, school performance, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, impulsiveness, parental divorce, relationships with parents, parental trust, health behaviour, leisure-time spent with friends, dating, and problems with the law.

Results

All the socioeconomic, family, personal, and lifestyle variables in adolescence, except parental social class in both genders and self-esteem among females, showed significant univariate associations with excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among adolescent males, parental divorce, moderate and high level of depressive symptoms, leisure-time spent daily among friends and moderate and drunkenness-orientated drinking were the strongest predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood. Among females, the strongest adolescent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood were drunkenness-orientated drinking and frequent smoking.

Conclusions

Early interventions for adolescent substance use and a set of specific psychosocial risk factors should be tailored and evaluated as methods for identifying those at high risk of and preventing excessive alcohol use in adulthood.

Keywords

Excessive alcohol use Risk factors Adolescence Adulthood Longitudinal studies