The impact of metabolic control and QTc prolongation on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers
The increased all-cause mortality in patients with chronic diabetic foot ulcers cannot fully be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The significance of heart-rate-corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, a finding often seen in these patients, is unknown. Recently, the importance of metabolic control and hypoglycaemia has been discussed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different HbA1c levels and QTc prolongation on all-cause mortality in the high-risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers.
All patients with type 2 diabetes, younger than 80 years, visiting our diabetes foot unit, with a foot ulcer duration >4 weeks, were screened for participation. Patients on dialysis were excluded. Patients were grouped according to HbA1c level and QTc time ≤ or > 440 ms.
Patients (n = 214, median age 69.1 years) were grouped according to HbA1c level (HbA1c < 7.5% [<58 mmol/mol] n = 81, 7.5–8.9% [58–74 mmol/mol] n = 70, >8.9% [>74 mmol/mol] n = 63). Baseline characteristics, including use of potential hypoglycaemic drugs, were similar between groups. During the 8 years of follow-up 151 patients died (70.6%) and HbA1c < 7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) was strongly associated with increased mortality. The highest mortality was seen in patients with a combination of HbA1c < 7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) and QTc prolongation, with an 8 year mortality of 92.1% as compared with 48.8% in those with HbA1c < 7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) but without QTc prolongation.
HbA1c < 7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) in a high-risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers is associated with a significantly higher mortality, particularly in patients with QTc prolongation.
- The impact of metabolic control and QTc prolongation on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers
Volume 56, Issue 5 , pp 1140-1147
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- Foot ulcers
- Metabolic control
- QTc prolongation
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Institution of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
- 2. MAVA, Department of Emergency Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, 221 85, Lund, Sweden
- 3. Department of Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden