Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration.
One-thousand two-hundred and seventy-six non-diabetic individuals from the RISC (relationship between insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease) study without high alcohol consumption were studied; all had a euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp and an OGTT with assessment of insulin sensitivity, secretion and clearance.
Alcohol consumption was positively associated with insulin sensitivity in women (β = 0.15, p trend = 0.005) and in men (β = 0.07, p trend = 0.07) after controlling for age, centre, waist, smoking and physical activity. In women, this association persisted after adjustment for adiponectin but was attenuated after controlling for HDL-cholesterol, suggesting that part of the protection is related to a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower basal insulin secretion in women only (β = −0.10, p trend = 0.004) and this association persisted after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In men, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with enhanced insulin clearance and increased fasting NEFA concentrations, independently of insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucagon decreased with increasing alcohol in women only (abstainers 9.2 ± 4.4; <28 g/week 8.6 ± 4.0; 28–64 g/week 8.1 ± 3.7; >64 g/week 7.5 ± 3.1 pmol/l; p trend = 0.01).
Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was associated in healthy women with enhanced insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting plasma glucagon concentration, providing consistent mechanisms for the reduced risk of diabetes.
- Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women
Volume 55, Issue 12 , pp 3228-3237
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Insulin clearance
- Insulin resistance
- Insulin secretion
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Service Endocrinologie–Diabétologie, CHU Rennes, Université Rennes 1, Inserm UMR 991, Rennes, France
- 2. Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Rhône-Alpes, Inserm U1060-INRA 1235, Lyon, France
- 3. Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Padua, Italy
- 4. Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
- 5. Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
- 6. Medical Direction, Specialized Hospital Complex Agathenhof, Micheldorf, Austria
- 7. Metabolic Unit, Istituto di Ingegneria Biomedica-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISIB-CNR), Padova, Italy
- 8. San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Internal Medicine Department, and Metabolic and Cardiovascular Science Division, Milan, Italy
- 10. University Paris Sud 11, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France
- 9. Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Epidemiology of diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease over the lifecourse and determinants of early nutrition, Villejuif, France