Original Paper

Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 101, Issue 7, pp 533-540

David and Goliath: potent venom of an ant-eating spider (Araneae) enables capture of a giant prey

  • Stano PekárAffiliated withDepartment of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University Email author 
  • , Onřej ŠedoAffiliated withResearch Group Proteomics, Mendel Centre for Plant Genomics and Proteomics, Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk UniversityNational Centre for Biomolecular Research, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University
  • , Eva LíznarováAffiliated withDepartment of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University
  • , Stanislav KorenkoAffiliated withDepartment of Agroecology and Biometeorology, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences
  • , Zdeněk ZdráhalAffiliated withResearch Group Proteomics, Mendel Centre for Plant Genomics and Proteomics, Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk UniversityNational Centre for Biomolecular Research, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University

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Abstract

It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.

Keywords

Adaptations Ant-eater Araneae Venom Specialist