Adult immunization policies in advanced economies: vaccination recommendations, financing, and vaccination coverage
While many countries have robust child immunization programs and high child vaccination coverage, vaccination of adults has received less attention. The objective of this study was to describe the adult vaccination policies in developed countries.
From 2010 to 2011, we conducted a survey of 33 advanced economies as defined by the International Monetary Fund. The survey asked about national recommendations for adults for 16 vaccines or vaccine components, funding mechanisms for recommended adult vaccines, and the availability of adult vaccination coverage estimates.
Thirty-one of 33 (93.9 %) advanced economies responded to the survey. Twelve of 31 (38.7 %) reported having a comprehensive adult immunization schedule. The total number of vaccines or vaccine components recommended for adults ranged from one to 15 with a median of 10. Seasonal influenza (n = 30), tetanus (n = 28), pneumococcal polysaccharide (n = 27), and hepatitis B (n = 27) were the most frequently recommended vaccines or components.
Approximately two-thirds of survey respondents do not have a comprehensive adult vaccine schedule, and most do not measure vaccination coverage. We found that a funding mechanism is available for most recommended adult vaccines.
- Adult immunization policies in advanced economies: vaccination recommendations, financing, and vaccination coverage
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
International Journal of Public Health
Volume 58, Issue 6 , pp 865-874
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Basel
- Additional Links
- Adult immunization
- Vaccination policy
- Vaccination coverage
- Vaccine financing
- Developed country
- Advanced economy
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. National Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, USA
- 2. Reparto Malattie Infettive, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Centro Nazionale di Epidemiologia, Sorveglianza e Promozione della Salute, Rome, Italy
- 3. Health Communication and Marketing Group, Health Communication and Technical Training Program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN, USA
- 4. Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA