Education and depressive symptoms in 22 European countries
Variations in the association between education and depressive symptoms in 22 European countries are investigated.
Analyses are based on the European Social Survey Round 3 (N = 34,443). Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Depressive symptoms are measured by the shortened Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 8).
The results of multiple logistic regressions show that people with low education have elevated risks of experiencing a high score of depressive symptoms. Relatively large inequalities were observed among both sexes for Hungary and Slovenia, small and non-significant inequalities for Austria, Denmark, and Estonia.
The results indicate that educational inequalities in depressive symptoms are a generalized although not invariant phenomenon.