Fate and disposition of bromocriptine in animals and man. II: Absorption, elimination and metabolism
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The disposition and biotransformation of bromocriptine were investigated in mouse, rat, dog, rhesus monkey and man following administration of the drug substance labelled with either tritium or carbon-14.
The enteral absorption of bromocriptine was incomplete and amounted to 30–40% of the dose as estimated directly from the sum of biliary and urinary excretion of radioactive compounds in bile duct cannulated rats and monkeys. The main route of elimination was the bile (80–93% of the absorbed dose). Only 1 to 6% of the radioactive dose was recovered in urine of intact animals and man.
Extensive biotransformation of bromocriptine is reflected by very complex metabolite profiles in all tested body fluids and by the almost complete absence of parent drug in urine and bile. Of the numerous drug-derived radioactive components seventeen could be identified. In animals the major urinary metabolites were 2-bromo-lysergic acid (7), its amide (3), and the respective isomers at position 8, metabolites6 and1. Bromolysergic acid (7) and bromoisolysergic acid (6) accounted for half of the radioactivity in human urine. In rat and monkey bile up to 40% of the radioactivity was associated with metabolites derived from the oxidation (hydroxylation, ring-opening) of the proline fragment (4, 5, 21–24, 29–31). The hydroxylated compounds were present in the form of conjugates with glucuronic acid. These were subsequently deconjugated in the intestine and recovered in the faeces as the free forms.
The presence of the parent drug as a major component in rat plasma following intravenous administration and its absence after oral administration indicated that the elimination of bromocriptine proceeded almost entirely by metabolism in the liver.In vitro studies with isolated rat hepatocytes and 10.000 g supernatant of human liver confirmed thein vivo findings.
Based on the structures of the identified metabolites it could be concluded that the biotransformation of bromocriptine in man occurred through the same principal pathways as in all investigated animal species.
- Maurer, G., Schreier, E., Delaborde, S., Loosli, H.R., Nufer, R. and Shukla, A.P. (1982): Fate and disposition of bromocriptine in animals and man. I: Structure elucidation of the metabolites. Eur. J. Drug. Metab. Pharmacok.7, 281–292.
- Schreier, E. (1976): Radiolabelled peptide ergot alkaloids. Helv. chim. Acta59, 585–606. CrossRef
- Meszaros, J., Nimmerfall, F., Rosenthaler, J., Weber, H. (1975): Permanent bile duct cannulation in the monkey. A model for studying intestinal absorption. Europ. J. Pharmacol.32, 233–242. CrossRef
- Bahr, C., Groth, C.G., Jansson, H., Lundgren, G., Lind, M., Glauman, H. (1980): Drug metabolism in human liver in vitro: establishment of a human liver bank. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.27, 711–725.
- Bradford, M. (1976): A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem.72, 248–254. CrossRef
- Eckert, H., Kiechel, J.R., Rosenthaler, J., Schmidt, R., Schreier, E. (1978): Biopharmaceutical aspects. Analytical methods, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and bioavailability. In: Berde, B., Schild, H.O. (eds): Ergot alkaloids and related compounds. Handbook Exp. Pharmacol.49, 719–803, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.
- Aellig, W.H., Nüesch, E. (1977): Comparative pharmacokinetic investigations with tritium labelled ergot alkaloids after oral and after intravenous administration in man. Int. J. clin. Pharmacol.15, 106–112.
- Schran, H.F., Bhuta, S.I., Schwarz, H.J., Thorner, M.O. (1980): The pharmacokinetics of bromocriptine in man. In: Goldstein, M., Calne, D.B., Lieberman, A., Thorner, M.O. (eds): Ergot compounds and brain function: Neuroendocrine and neuropsychiatric aspects, pp. 125–139. New York: Raven Press.
- Meier, J., Tanner, P., Sandoz Ltd. Basle, unpublished data.
- Markey, S.P., Colburn, R.W., Kopin, I.J. Aamodt, R.L. (1979): Distribution and excretion in the rat and monkey of [82Br]bromocriptine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.211, 31–35.
- Wong, S.H., Spencer, R.P., Hosain, P. (1978): Distribution and fate of 2-Br-82-alpha-ergokryptine and H-3-dihydroergokryptine in female rabbits. Fed. Proc.37, 741, Abstract No. 2773.
- Giron-Forest, D.A., Schönleber, W.D. (1979): Bromocriptine methanesulphonate. An analytical profile. In: Florey, K. (ed.): Analytical profiles of drug substances. Vol.8, pp. 47–81. New York, London: Academic Press.
- Larsen, N.E., Oehman, R., Larsson, M., Hvidberg, E.F. (1979): Determination of bromocriptine in plasma: Comparison of gas chromatography, mass fragmentography and liquid chromatography. J. Chromatography174, 341–349. CrossRef
- Price, P., Debono, A., Parkes, J.D., Mardsen, C.D., Rosenthaler, J. (1978): Plasma bromocriptine levels, clinical and growth hormone responses in parkinsonism. Brit. J. Clin. Pharmacol.6, 303–309.
- Schran, H.F., Schwarz, H.J., Talbot, K.C., Loeffler, L.J. (1979): Specific analysis of ergot peptide alkaloids by radioimmunoassay. Clin. Chem.25, 1928–1933.
- Fletcher, S., Vardi, J., Oberman, Z., Gilad, S., Allelov, M., Streifler, M. (1979): Plasma levels of bromocriptine after acute and chronic administration in parkinsonian patients: a radioimmunoassay study. Curr. Ther. Res.25, 540–543.
- Pearce, I., Pearce, J.M.S. (1978): Bromocriptine in parkinsonism. Brit. med. J.1, 1402–1404. CrossRef
- Thorner, M.O., Schran, H.F., Evans, W.S., Rogol, A.D., Morris, J.L., MacLeod, R.M. (1980): A broad spectrum of prolactin suppression by bromocriptine in hyperprolactinemic women. A study of serum prolactin and bromocriptine levels after acute and chronic administration of bromocriptine. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.50, 1026–1033. CrossRef
- Nimmerfall, F., Rosenthaler, J. (1976): Ergot alkaloids: hepatic distribution and estimation of absorption by measurement of total radioactivity in bile and urine. J. Pharmacokinet. Biopharm.4, 57–66. CrossRef
- Friis, M.L., Gron, U., Larsen, N.E., Pakkenberg, H., Hvidberg, E.F. (1979): Pharmacokinetics of bromocriptine during continuous oral treatment of parkinson’s disease. Europ. J. Clin. Pharmacol.15, 275–280. CrossRef
- Friis, M.L., Paulson, O.B., Hertz, M.M. (1979): Transfer of bromocriptine across the blood-brain barrier in man. Acta Neurol. Scand.59, 88–95. CrossRef
- Fate and disposition of bromocriptine in animals and man. II: Absorption, elimination and metabolism
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Volume 8, Issue 1 , pp 51-62
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- in vitro
- Industry Sectors