Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC), an aggressive malignant epithelial neoplasm, first emerged as a distinct clinicopathologic entity in 1995. It affects individuals 40 years of age or younger and is strongly associated with sickle cell disease or trait. The majority of patients with RMC have widely disseminated disease at the time of diagnosis and most fail to respond to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Mortality approaches 100%, and death usually occurs within a few months to a year of diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old African-American boy with a history of gross hematuria who died four weeks after diagnosis of disseminated metastatic disease. Autopsy showed a 4.4-cm renal mass with metastases to the contra lateral kidney, liver, lungs and multiregional lymph nodes. RMC should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient 40 years old or younger with a history of hemoglo-binopathy and gross hematuria and/or abdominal or flank pain. A brief discussion of the differential diagnosis, histogenesis and treatment is presented in this study.