Shoreline and coral reef ecosystem changes in gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India
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Changes in shoreline, coral reef and seafloor have been mapped using remote sensing satellite data of IRS LISS-III (1998), IRS LISS-II (1988), Survey of India Topographic sheet (1969), Naval Hydrographic Chart (NHO) 1975 and bathymetry data (1999) with ARC-INFO and ARC-VIEW GIS. The analysis of multi-date shoreline maps showed that 4.34 and 23.49 km2 of the mainland coast and 4.14 and 3.31 km2 areas of island coast have been eroded and accreted, respectively, in the Gulf of Mannar. The analysis of multi-date coral reef maps showed that 25.52 km2 of reef area and 2.16 km2 of reef vegetation in Gulf of Mannar have been lost over a period of ten years. The analysis of multi-date bathymetry data indicates that the depth of seafloor has decreased along the coast and around the islands in the study area. The average reduction of depth in seafloor has been estimated as 0.51m over a period of twenty four years. The increased suspended sediment concentration due to coastal and island erosion, and raised reef due to emerging of coast by tectonic movement are responsible for coral reef degradation in the Gulf of Mannar. Validation by ground truth has confirmed these results.
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- Shoreline and coral reef ecosystem changes in gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India
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