Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of apigenin: inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and expression of cellular adhesion molecules
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- Lee, JH., Zhou, H.Y., Cho, S.Y. et al. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2007) 30: 1318. doi:10.1007/BF02980273
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The aim of this study was to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of apigenin. Apigenin inhibited the collagenase activity involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose dependent manner in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Pretreatment with apigenin also attenuated LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In addition, apigenin profoundly reduced the tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)-induced adhesion of monocytes to HUVEC monolayer. Apigenin significantly suppressed the TNF-a-stimulated upregulation of vascular cellular adhesion mole-cule-1 (VCAM-1)-, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-, and E-selectin-mRNA to the basal levels. Taken together, these results suggest that apigenin has significant anti-inflammatory activity that involves blocking NO-mediated COX-2 expression and monocyte adherence. These results further suggest that apigenin may be useful for therapeutic management of inflammatory diseases.