Reasons for regional integration agreements
- Peter Moser
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Regional integration agreements are commonplace in the world today. In 1996 there were 88 such agreements worldwide, covering a variety of forms from declarations of intent to unilateral preferential trade agreements, free trade treaties, customs unions, and the common market with its freedom of movement for labour and capital. Which factors have contributed to the great popularity of regional integration agreements?
- WTO: Annual Report 1996.
- For a thorough survey see R. E. Baldwin, A. J. Venables: Regional Economic Integration, in: G. Grossman, K. Rogoff (eds.): Handbook of International Economics, Vol. 3, Amsterdam 1995, pp. 1597–1644.
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- R. E. Baldwin, A. J. Venables, op. cit. Regional Economic Integration, in: G. Grossman, K. Rogoff (eds.): Handbook of International Economics, Vol. 3, Amsterdam 1995, pp. 1597–1644.
- W. Ethier, H. Horn: A New Look at Economic Integration, in: H. Kierszkowski (ed.): Monopolistic Competition and International Trade, Oxford 1984; A. J. Venables: Customs Union, Tariff Reform and Imperfect Competition, in: European Economic Review, Vol. 31 (1987), pp. 103–110; A. J. Venables: The Economic Integration in Oligopolistic Markets, in: European Economic Review, Vol. 34 (1990), pp 753–769; J. Haaland, I. Wooton: Market Integration, Competition and Welfare, in: L. A. Winters (ed.): Trade Flow and Trade Policy After “1992”, Cambridge 1992.
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- P. Krugman: The Move to Free Trade Zones, in: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Review, Vol. 76 (1991), pp. 5–25; J. A. Frankel, E. Stein, S-J. Wie: Regional Trading Arrangements: Natural or Supernatural? in: American Economic Review, Vol. 86 (1996), No. 2, pp. 52–56.
- See also the empirical study by H. P. Marvel, E. J. Ray: Intra-industry Trade: Sources and Effects on Protection, in: Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 95 (1987), pp. 1278–1291.
- G. M. Grossman, E. Helpman: The Politics of Free Trade Agreements, in: American Economic Review, Vol. 85, No. 4 (1995), pp. 667–690.
- A. O. Kruger: Free Trade Agreements as Protectionist Devices: Rules of Origin, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 4352, 1993.
- See the summaries in A. L. Hillman: The Political Economy of Protection, Chur 1989, and D. Rodrik: Political Economy of Trade Protection, in: G. Grossman, K. Rogoff (eds.): Handbook of International Economics, Vol. III, Amsterdam 1995, pp. 1457–1494.
- J. Herin: Rules of Origin and Differences between Tariff Levels in EFTA and the EC, EFTA Occasional Paper, No. 13, 1986.
- See for example the overview by L. A. Winters: The European Community: A Case of Successful Integration? in J. de Melo and A. Panagariya (eds.): New Dimensions in Regional Integration, Cambridge 1993, pp. 202–228, on the EU, and that of J. F. Francois, C. R. Shiells (eds.): Modelling Trade Policy: Applied General Equilibrium Asessment of North American Free Trade, Cambridge 1994, on NAFTA.
- B. Balassa (ed.): European Economic Integration, Amsterdam 1975.
- P. Robson: The Economics of International Integration, London 1984.
- L.A. Winters: Britain in Europe: A Survey of Quantitative Trade Studies, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 25 (1987), pp. 315–335.
- A. M. El-Agraa: The Theory and Measurement of International Economic Integration, New York 1989.
- R. Pomfret: Unequal Trade: The Economics of Discriminatory International Trade Policies, Oxford 1988.
- See the compilation in R. E. Baldwin, A. J. Venables, op. cit. Regional Economic Integration, in: G. Grossman, K. Rogoff (eds.): Handbook of International Economics, Vol. 3, Amsterdam 1995, p. 1632.
- Baldwin, R. E. (1994) Towards an Integrated Europe. Centre for Economic Policy Research, London
- Reasons for regional integration agreements
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- Peter Moser (1)
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- 1. Business School of Chur Samedan and University of St. Gallen, Switzerland