Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 260–267

Review of the treatment literature for encopresis, functional constipation, and stool-toileting refusal

  • Risa C. Brooks
  • Rachel M. Copen
  • Daniel J. Cox
  • James Morris
  • Stephen Borowitz
  • James Sutphen
Literature Reviews

DOI: 10.1007/BF02895121

Cite this article as:
Brooks, R.C., Copen, R.M., Cox, D.J. et al. ann. behav. med. (2000) 22: 260. doi:10.1007/BF02895121

Abstract

This review summarizes the literature on randomized, controlled, published studies involving medical, behavioral, psychological, and biofeedback treatments for encopresis/functional constipation and stool-toileting refusal in preschool-age and school-age children. Nine such studies were located in the literature involving school-age children. No randomized, controlled treatment studies involving preschool-age children have been published. This review revealed no evidence to support the routine use of psychotherapy or anal sphincter biofeedback in the treatment of pediatric fecal elimination dysfunctions, beyond those benefits derived from a comprehensive medical-behavioral intervention. Further, this review indicated that paradoxical constriction of the External Anal Sphincter does not influence the treatment outcome of either biofeedback or medical-behavioral interventions. There are remarkably few controlled treatment outcome studies in this most important clinical area. More research is needed that employs standard treatment outcome variables.

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Risa C. Brooks
    • 1
  • Rachel M. Copen
    • 1
  • Daniel J. Cox
    • 1
  • James Morris
    • 1
  • Stephen Borowitz
    • 1
  • James Sutphen
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioral Medicine CenterUniversity of Virginia Health Sciences CenterCharlottesville

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