Sooting behavior of ethanol droplet combustion at elevated pressures under microgravity conditions
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Liquid ethanol is widely used in practical fuels as a means to extend petroleum-derived resources or as a fuel additive to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide from spark ignition engines. Recent research has also suggested that ethanol and other oxygenates could be added to diesel fuel to reduce particulate emissions. In this cursory study, the combustion of small ethanol droplets in microgravity environments was observed to investigate diffusion flame characteristics at higher ambient pressures and at various oxygen indices, all with nitrogen as the diluent species. At the NASA Glenn Research Center 2.2-second drop tower, free ethanol droplets were ignited in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) apparatus, and backlit and flame view data were collected to evaluate flame position and burning rate. Profuse sooting was noted above 3 atm ambient pressure. In experiments performed at the Japan Microgravity Center 10-second (JAMIC) drop shaft with Sooting Effects in Droplet Combustion (SEDC) apparatus, the first data that displayed a spherical sootshell for ethanol droplet combustion was obtained. Because of the strong sensitivity of soot formation to small changes in an easily accessible range of pressures, ethanol appears to be a simple liquid fuel suitable for fundamental studies of soot formation effects on spherical diffusion flames. The results impact discussions regarding the mechanism of particulate reduction by ethanol addition to fuels in high-pressure practical combustors.
- California Energy Commission, Evaluation of Biomass-to-Ethanol Fuel Potential in California: A Report to the Governor and the Agency Secretary, California Environmental Protection, (1999)
- Vanderver, T.A. eds. (1992) Clean Air Law and Regulation. The Bureau of National Affairs, Washington, D.C.
- The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act, Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 400/K 93-001, (1993)
- Liotta, F.J., and Montalvo, D.M., The Effect of Oxygenated Fuels on Emissions from a Modern Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine, SAE 932734, (1993)
- Curran, H.J., Fisher, E.M., Glaude, P.A., Marinov, N.M., Pitz, W.J., Westbrook, C.K., Layton, D.W., Flynn, P.F., Durrett, R.P., zur Loye, A.O., Akinyemi, O.C., and Dryer, F.L., Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels, SAE 2001-01-0653, (2001).
- Gajdeczko, B.F., Luff, J., Dryer, F.L., Lavid, M. (2000) Laser Ignition Of Liquid Oxygen/Ethanol Propellants. Twenty-Eighth Symposium (Int.) on Combustion: Abstracts of Work in Progress Poster Presentations (No. 2-B20). The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA., pp. 244-244
- Street, J.C., Thomas, A. (1955) Carbon Formation in Pre-mixed Flames. Fuel 34: pp. 4-4
- Frenklach, M. and Yuan, J., Effect of Alcohol Addition on Shock-Initiated Formation of Soot from Benzene, in: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Shock Tubes and Waves, p. 487 (1987)
- Alexiou, A., Williams, A. (1996) Soot Formation in Shock-Tube Pyrolysis of Toluene, Toluene-Methanol, Toluene-Ethanol, and Toluene-Oxygen Mixtures. Combust. Flame 104: pp. 51-51 CrossRef
- Okajima, S., Kumagai, S. (1974) Further Investigations of Combustion of Free Droplets in a Freely Falling Chamber Including Moving Droplets. Fifteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA., pp. 401-401
- Lee, A., Law, C. K. (1992) An Experimental Investigation on Vaporization and Combustion of Methanol and Ethanol Droplets. Combust. Sci. Technol. 86: pp. 253-253 CrossRef
- Hara, H., Kumagai, S. (1990) Experimental Investigation of Free Droplet Combustion Under Microgravity, Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
- Colantonio, R.O., Nayagam, V. (1997) Radiative Heat Loss Measurements During Microgravity Droplet Combustion. Proceedings of the Technical Meeting of Central States Section of the Combustion Institute. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
- Colantonio, R.O., Haggard, J.B., Nayagam, V., Shaw, B. D., Williams, F.A. (1998) Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion-2. L+1 Conference Proceedings. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL
- Kazakov, A., Urban, B. D., Conley, J., Dryer, F.L. (2000) Experimental and Modeling Study of the Burning of Ethanol Droplet in Microgravity. Twenty-Eighth Symposium (Int.) on Combustion: Abstracts of Work in Progress Poster Presentations (No. 2-A07). The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA., pp. 142-142
- Kazakov, A., Conley, J., Dryer, F.L. (2003) Detailed Modeling of an Isolated Ethanol Droplet Combustion under Microgravity Conditions. Combust. Flame 134: pp. 301-314 CrossRef
- Choi, M.Y., and Dryer, F.L., Experiments and Model Development for Investigation of Sooting and Radiation Effects in Microgravity Droplet Combustion, Science Requirements Document, NASA, (2001)
- Miyamoto, M., Ogawa, H. Nurun, N. M., Obata, K., and Arima, T., Smokeless, Low NOx, High Thermal Efficiency, and Low Noise Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Agents as Main Fuel, SAE 980506, (1998)
- Yap, L.T. (1986) Some Fundamental Studies on Disruptive Burning Phenomena of Isolated Droplets. Princeton University Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton, NJ
- Urban, B.D., Kroenlein, K., Ernst, L.F., Kazakov, A., Dryer, F.L., Shor, L., Yozgatligil, A., Choi, M.Y., Manzello, S., Lee, K.O., Dobashi, R. (2001) Initial Observations of Soot Formation During Ethanol Droplet Combustion at Elevated Pressures. 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
- Norton, T.S., Dryer, F.L. (1992) An Experimental and Modeling Study of Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics in an Atmospheric Pressure Flow Reactor. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 24: pp. 319-319 CrossRef
- Marinov, N.M. (1999) A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 31: pp. 183-183 CrossRef
- Yozgatligil, A., Pfau, D., Choi, M.Y., Kazakov, A., Dryer, F.L., Measurement of Burning and Sooting Behavior of Ethanol Droplets under Microgravity Conditions, Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, (2003).
- Yozgatligil, A., Park, S.H., Choi, M.Y., Kazakov, A., Dryer, F.L. (2003) Burning and Sooting Behavior of Ethanol Droplet Combustion under Microgravity Conditions, Proceedings of Combustion Institute 30. Combust. Sci. Tech. 176: pp. 1-15
- Nayagam, V., Haggard, J.B., Jr., Colantonio, R., Marchese, A.J., Dryer, F.L., Zhang, B.L., and Williams, F.A., Microgravity n-Heptane Droplet Combustion in Oxygen-Helium Mixtures at Atmospheric Pressure, AIAA Journal vol 36 (1998)
- Avedisian, C. T., Jackson, G. S. (2000) Soot Patterns Around Suspended n-Heptane Droplet Flames in a Convection-Free Environment. Journal of Propulsion and Power 16: pp. 974-974 CrossRef
- Shaw, B. D., Dryer, F. L., Williams, F. A., Haggard, J. B. (1988) Sooting and Disruption in Symmetrical Combustion of Decane Droplets in Air. Acta Astronautica 17: pp. 1195-1195 CrossRef
- Choi, M.Y. (1992) Droplet Combustion Characteristics under Microgravity and Normal-Gravity Conditions. Princeton University Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton, NJ
- Choi, M.Y., Lee, K.O. (1996) Investigation of Sooting in Microgravity Droplet Combustion. Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA., pp. 1243-1243
- Manzello, S., Choi, M.Y., Kazakov, A., Dryer, F.L., Dobashi, R., Hirano, T. (2000) The Burning of Large n-Heptane Droplets in Microgravity. Twenty-Eighth Symposium (International) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA., pp. 1079-1079
- Sooting behavior of ethanol droplet combustion at elevated pressures under microgravity conditions
Microgravity - Science and Technology
Volume 15, Issue 3 , pp 12-18
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, 08544, Princeton, NJ
- 2. Department of Mechanical and Engineering Mechanics, Drexel University, 19104, Philadelphia, PA
- 3. Building and Fire Research Laboratory, NIST, 20899, Gaithersburg, MD
- 4. Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 60439, Argonne, IL
- 5. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan