A review of major storm impacts on coastal wetland elevations
- Donald R. Cahoon
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Storms have long been recognized as agents of geomorphic change to coastal wetlands. A review of recent data on soil elevation dynamics before and after storms revealed that storms affected wetland elevations by storm surge, high winds, and freshwater flushing of the estuary (inferred). The data also indicate that measures of sediment deposition and erosion can often misrepresent the amount and even direction of elevation change because of storm influences on subsurface processes. Simultaneous influence on both surface and subsurface processe by storms means that soil elevation cannot always be accurately estimated from surface process data alone. Eight processes are identified as potentially influencing soil elevation: sediment deposition, sediment erosion, sediment compaction, soil shrinkage, root decomposition (following tree mortality from high winds), root growth (following flushing with freshwater, inferred), soil swelling, and lateral folding of the marsh root mat. Local wetland condition (e.g., marsh health, tide height, groundwater level) and the physical characteristics of the storm (e.g., angle of approach, proximity, amount of rain, wind speed, and storm surge height) were apparently important factors determining the storm's effect on soil elevation. Storm effect on elevation were both permanent (on an ecological time scale) and short-lived, but event short-term changes have potentially important ecological consequences. Shallow soil subsidence or expansion caused by a storm must be considered when calculating local rates of relative sea level rise and evaluating storm effects on wetland stability.
- Barras, J. A. 2003. Change to Cote Blanche Hydrologic Restoration Area (TV-04) after Hurricane Lili. U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center, map-id USGS-NWRC 2003-11-112. Lafayette, Louisiana.
- Boumans, R. M., andJ. W. Day Jr. 1993. High precision measurements of sediment elevation in shallow coastal areas using a sedimentation-erosion table.Estuaries 16:375–380. CrossRef
- Cahoon, D. R.. 2003. Storms as agents of wetland elevation change: Their impact on surface and subsurface sediment processes.In Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Sediments 2003. CD-ROM, World Scientific Publishing Corporation and East Meets West Productions, Corpus Christi, Texas.
- Cahoon, D. R., J. W. Day, Jr, andD. J. Reed. 1999. The influence of surface and shallow subsurface soil processes on wetland elevation: A synthesis.Current Topics in Wetland Biogeochemistry 3:72–88.
- Cahoon, D. R., J. W. Day Jr., D. J. Reed, and R. S. Young. 1998. Global climate change and sea-level rise: Estimating the potential for submergence of coastal wetland, p. 19–32.In G. Guntenspergen and B. Vairin (eds.), Vulnerability of Coastal Wetlands in the Southeastern United States: Climate Change Research Results, 1992–1997. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division Biological Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR-1998-0002. Lafayette, Louisiana.
- Cahoon, D. R., P. Hensel, J. Rybczyk, K. McKee, C. E. Proffitt, andB. Perez 2003a Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.Journal of Ecology 91:1093–1105. CrossRef
- Cahoon, D. R., P. Hansel, J. Rybczyk, and B. Perez. 2003b. Hurricane Mitch: Impacts on mangrove sediment elevation dynamics and long-term mangrove sustainability. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 03-184, Lafayette, Louisiana.
- Cahoon, D. R., P. F. Hensel, T. Spencer, D. J. Reed, K. L. McKee, andN. Saintilan. 2006. Coastal wetland vulnerability to relative sea-level rise: Wetland elevation trends and process controls, p. 271–292.In J. Verhoeven, B. Beltman, R. Bobbink, and D. Whigham (eds.), Wetlands and Natural Resource Management. Ecological Studies, Volume 190. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. CrossRef
- Cahoon, D. R., J. C. Lynch, P. Hensel, R. M. Boumans, B. C. Perez, B. Segura, andJ. W. Day Jr. 2002a. High precision measurement of wetland sediment elevation: I. Recent improvements to the sedimentation-erosion table.Journal of Sedimentary Research 72:730–733. CrossRef
- Cahoon, D. R., J. C. Lynch, B. C. Perez, B. Segura, R. Holland, C. Stelly, G. Stephenson, andP. Hensel. 2002b. High precision measurement of wetland sediment elevation: II. The rod surface elevation tables.Journal of Sedimentary Research 72:734–739. CrossRef
- Cahoon, D. R., J. C. Lynch, andA. N. Powell. 1996. Marsh vertical accretion in a southern California estuary, USA.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 43:19–32. CrossRef
- Cahoon, D. R., D. J. Reed, andJ. W. Day Jr. 1995a. Estimating shallow subsidence in microtidal salt marshes of the southeastern United States: Kaye and Barghoorn revisited.Marine Geology 128:1–9. CrossRef
- Cahoon, D. R., D. J. Reed, J. W. Day Jr.G. D. Steyer, R. M. Boumans, J. C. Lynch, D. McNally, andN. Latif. 1995b. The influence of Hurricane Andrew on sediment distribution in Louisiana coastal marshes.Journal of Coastal Research SI 21:280–294.
- Cahoon, D. R. andR. E. Turner. 1989. Accretion and canal impacts in a rapidly subsiding wetland II. Feldspar marker horizon technique.Estuaries 12:260–268. CrossRef
- Chapman, V. J.. 1974. Salt Marshes and Salt Deserts of the World, 2nd edition. Verlag von J. Cramer, Bremerhaven, Germany.
- Day, Jr.J. W., D. Pont, P. F. Hensel, andC. Ibanez. 1995. Impacts of sea-level rise on deltas in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean: The importance of pulsing events to sustainability.Estuaries 18:636–647. CrossRef
- Giorgi, F., B. Hewitson, J. Christensen, M. Hulme, H. Von Storch, P. Whetton, R. Jones, L. Mearns, andC. Fu. 2001. Regional climate information— Evaluation and projections, p. 583–638.In J. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. Johnson (eds.), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
- Goldenberg, S., C. Landsea, A. Mestas-Nunez, andW. Gray. 2001. The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: Causes and implications.Science 293:474–479. CrossRef
- Guntenspergen, G. R., D. R. Cahoon, J. B. Grace, G. D. Steyer, S. Fournet, M. A. Townson, andA. L. Foote 1995. Disturbance and recovery of the Louisiana coastal marsh landscape from the impacts of Hurricane Andrew.Journal of Coastal Research SI 21:324–339.
- Hendrickson, J. C.. 1997. Coastal Wetland Response to Rising Sea-Level: Quantification of Short- and Long-term Accretion and Subsidence, Northeastern Gulf Of Mexico. M.S. Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.
- Jimenez, J. A., A. E. Lugo, andG. Cintron. 1985. Tree mortality in mangrove forests.Biotropicas 17:177–185. CrossRef
- Lugo, A. E.. 2000. Effects and outcomes of Caribbean hurricanes in a climate change scenario.The Science of the Total Environment 262:243–251. CrossRef
- Michot, T. C., C. J. Wells and P. C. Chadwick. In press. Aerial rapid assessment of hurricane damages to north gulf coastal habitas.In G. S. Farris, G. J. Smith, M. P. Crane, C. R. Demas, L. L. Robbins, and D. L. Lavoie (eds.), Science and the storms: The USGS response to the hurricances of 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Circular No. St. Petersburgh, Florida.
- Mitsch, W. J. andJ. G. Gosselink. 2000. Wetlands, 3rd edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
- Morgan, J. P., L. G. Nichols, andM. Wright. 1958. Morphological effects of Hurricane Audrey on the Louisiana coast. Technical Report Number 10, Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
- Morris, J. T., P. V. Sundreshwar, C. T. Nietch, B. Kjerve, andD. R. Cahoon. 2002. Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level.Ecology 83:2869–2877. CrossRef
- Nyman, J. A., C. R. Crozier, andR. D. Delaune. 1995. Roles and patterns of hurricane sedimentation in an estuarine marsh landscape.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 40:665–679. CrossRef
- Ranwell, D. S.. 1972. Ecology of Salt Marshes and Sand Dunes, 1st edition. Chapman and Hall, London, England.
- Reed, D. J.. 2002. Sea-level rise and coastal marsh sustainability: Geological and ecological factors in the Mississippi delta plain.Geomorphology 48:233–243. CrossRef
- Reed, D. J. andD. R. Cahoon. 1993. Marsh submergence vs. marsh accretion: Interpreting accretion deficit data in coastal Louisiana, p. 243–257.In O. T. Magoon, W. S. Wilson, H. Converse, and L. T. Tobin (eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, Coastal Zone '93, New Orleans, Louisiana. ASCE Publishers, New York.
- Rejmanek, M., C. E. Sasser, andG. W. Peterson 1988. Hurricane-induced sediment deposition in a Gulf coast marsh.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 27:217–222. CrossRef
- Risi, J. A., H. R. Wanless, L. P. Tedesco, andS. Gelsanliter. 1995. Catastrophic sedimentation from Hurricane Andrew along the southeast Florida coast.Journal of Coastal Research SI 21:83–102.
- Rynbczyk, J. M. andD. R. Cahoon. 2002. Estimating the potential for submergence for two wetlands in the Mississippi River delta.Estuaries 25:985–998. CrossRef
- Wanless, H., R. Parkinson, andL. Tedesco. 1994. Sea level control on stability of Everglades wetlands, p. 199–223.In S. Davis and J. Ogden (eds.), Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
- Whelan, K. R. T., T. J. Smith III,D. R. Cahoon, J. C. Lynch, andG. H. Anderson. 2005. Groundwater control of mangrove surface elevation: Shrinks-swell of mangrove soils varies with depth.Estuaries 28:833–843. CrossRef
- Whigham, D., M. Dickinson, andN. Brokaw. 1999. Background canopy gap and catastrophic wind disturbances in tropical forests, p. 223–252.In L. R. Walker, (ed.), Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground, Ecosystems of the World 16, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- Yih, K., D. H. Boucher, J. H. Vandermeer, andN. Zamora. 1991. Recovery of the rain forest of southeastern Nicaragua after destruction by Hurricanes Joan.Biotropica 23:106–113. CrossRef
- Barras, J. unpublished data. U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, Coastal Restoration Field Station/Louisiana State University, P. O. Box 25098 Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70894.
- Steyer, G. D. personal communication. U.S. Geological Survey. National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, Louisiana 70503.
- Smith, III, T. J. unpublished data. U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies, 600 Fourth Street, South, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701.
- Wanless, H. R. unpublished data. Department of Geological Sciences, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124.
- A review of major storm impacts on coastal wetland elevations
Estuaries and Coasts
Volume 29, Issue 6 , pp 889-898
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Donald R. Cahoon (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, c/o BARC-East, Building 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, 20705, Bellsville, Maryland