Sparingly soluble neodymium copper oxalate (NCO) single crystals were grown by gel method, by the diffusion of a mixture of neodymium nitrate and cupric nitrate into the set gel containing oxalic acid. Tabular crystal, revealing well-defined dissolution figures has been recorded. X-ray diffraction studies of the powdered sample reveal that NCO is crystalline. Infrared absorption spectrum confirmed the formation of oxalato complex with water of crystallization, while energy dispersive X-ray analysis established the presence of neodymium dominant over copper in the sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies established the presence of Nd and Cu in oxide states besides (C2O4)2− oxalate group. The intensities of Nd (3d5/2) and Cu (2p3/2) peaks measured in terms of maximum photoelectron count rates also revealed the presence of Nd in predominance. The inductively coupled plasma analysis supports the EDAX and XPS data by the estimation of neodymium percentage by weight to that of copper present in the NCO sample. On the basis of these findings, an empirical structure for NCO has been proposed. The implications are discussed.