, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 261-288

Gigantic directed blast at Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka)

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Abstract

On November 12, 1964, after a long swarm of preliminary earthquakes a gigantic directed blast took place at Shiveluch Volcano. The Crater top of the volcano with five large domes was completely destroyed. The deposits of the directed blast fell on an area of 98 sq. km, at a distance up to 10 km from the crater. The volume of the deposits is 1.5 km3 at least.

A new crater was formed, its size is 1.5 × 3 km. Numerous pyroclastic flows were poured out the new crater.

The eruption lasted only one hour, its thermal energy is 1,3 × 1025 ergs, kinetic energy of the blast − 1 × 1024 ergs, air wave energy − 1,8 × 1021 ergs. Initial velocity of the explosion: 280–310m/sec, pressure: 800–1000atm.

The eruption of Shiveluch volcano belongs to the « Bezymianny type » eruption.