The per capita home range area of Japanese macaques,Macaca fuscata, is significantly smaller in evergreen forest than in deciduous forest, though a corresponding difference in food resource utilization patterns has never been described. The present study compared the home range utilization pattern of Japanese macaques living in two habitats: the Yakushima population inhabits an evergreen forest, while the Kinkazan population inhabits a deciduous forest. We found that in the Yakushima population, (1) food density was higher; (2) inter-feeding bout sites distance was shorter; (3) daily travel distance was shorter; (4) home range size was smaller; and (5) the unit value of the main home range was higher, than in the Kinkazan population. Yakushima groups utilized a small home range area intensively, compared to Kinkazan groups. We also found that a Yakushima group shared 24% of its main home range with neighboring groups, though a Kinkazan group shared only 10% with other groups. It is supposed that food distribution affects daily ranging pattern, and ultimately the social relationships between groups in Japanese macaques.
Japanese macaques Home range structure Inter-group competition Habitat quality