, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 245-285

Feeding and ranging patterns of forest hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus)

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Abstract

The feeding and ranging patterns of a troop of hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus, Colobinae) were studied in Kanha Tiger Reserve, central Indian Highlands for 1850 hr (1981–1982), in a mosaic of moist deciduous forest and anthropogenic meadow. The location, size, and species of each tree within the 74.5-ha troop annual range was known and the phenology of all tree species was sampled. According to scan sampling, the troop spent 25.7% of the daytime feeding, with range use concentrated on an island of dry deciduous forest. Whereas adjacent troops occupied only the periphery of the focal troop's range, all-male bands occupied its center, especially during takeover and infanticidal attacks. The troop consumed items from 60 of the 67 species of trees and woody climbers available; mature leaves (34.9% of feeding time), fruits (24.4%), leaf buds (10.6%), flowers and flower buds (9.5%), young leaves (3.6%), insects (3.0%), and gum (1%). The monthly utilization of fruit, open leaf buds, and flower buds is correlated significantly with their abundance, and the troop spent significantly more time feeding and less time moving when consuming mature leaves. Comparison of tree dispersion and langur ranging patterns suggests that the distribution of the most important food trees is a major influence on their range use.