, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 223-235

Lithostratigraphy and facies development of upper cretaceous carbonates in east central Sinai, Egypt

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Summary

The Upper Cretaceous exposures in east central Sinai are represented by carbonate-dominated successions interbedding few sandstone, chert, shale and marl horizons. The recognised rock units are correlated with their counterparts commonly used in the Gulf of Suez region and central Sinai including from base to top: the Raha Formation, Abu Qada Formation, Wata Formation, Matulla Formation and the Sudr Chalk.

Twelve limestone microfacies are encountered and are categorised as mudstones (pelmicrite and ostracod micrite), wackestones (pelagic biomicrite and foraminiferal biomicrite), grainstones (foraminiferal biopelsparite and oosparite), boundstones (bindstone and framestone), floatstones (coated-grained biomicrudite, rudist biomicrudite and shelly biomicrudite) and rudstones (shelly biosparudite). The dolostone microfacies include fine-medium crystalline ostracod dolostones and shelly dolostones. These microfacies have been compared with the Standard Microfacies Types and their depositional environments are discussed.

The encountered litho- and biofacies suggest that the Cenomanian shallow transgressive sea had covered east central Sinai as far south as the Dahab region. By the advent of the Turonian, open marine subtidal conditions prevailed. This was followed by transitional conditions with shoals and tidal bars in the Late Turonian pointing to a regressive phase more pronounced at the southern localities. The rocks of the Matulla Formation were deposited in an oscillating environment of shallow subtidal to intertidal conditions during Coniacian-Santonian. In the Late Santonian and during most of the Campanian-Maastrichtian, sedimentation was influenced by open marine conditions with low sedimentation rates; local shallow subtidal regressive events occurred.