, Volume 200-201, Issue 1, pp 367-377

Engineering and biological approaches to the restoration from eutrophication of shallow lakes in which aquatic plant communities are important components

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Abstract

Engineering approaches (nutrient removal, sediment pumping, hypolimnion oxygenation, alum treatments) may be most appropriate to deep lakes where the aim of restoration from eutrophication is simply to reduce the production and crop of one component, the phytoplankton. They do not always give the desired results because the nutrient loading may only be reduced to a limited extent. There are additional problems in shallow lakes where change of state between community dominance (aquatic plants versus plankton) is wanted. Each community has powerful buffering mechanisms and biomanipulation may be essential to switch one state to another even with considerable nutrient reduction.

For the phytoplankton-dominated community the buffers include the advantages of early growth, lower diffusion pathways for CO2, overhead shading, and an absence of large cladoceran grazers. This later is because open-water shallow environments provide no refuges against predation for the large Cladocera which are both the most efficient grazers and the most favoured prey for fish. Restoration of aquatic plants may then require provision of refuges for the grazers. Different sorts of refuge are discussed using case studies of Hoveton Great Broad and Cockshoot Broad in the Norfolk Broadland.